The factors that contribute to increasing in melanin production are responsible for this disease. Some of the factors are:
Excessive UV Exposure Sun’s ultraviolet light is the major cause of the uneven increase in melanin pigment. Sunburn leads to discoloration of the skin and even increases the risk of skin cancer.
Poor Liver function ailments like fatty liver or cirrhosis lead to hyper-pigmentation, Inactive kidney functioning which produces toxins in the body leads to skin color changes and Gall bladder ailments like Jaundice leads to yellow discoloration of the skin and eyes.
Skin injuries – An inflammatory reaction on the skin due to cuts, bruises, the improper technique of hair removal, or depilatory creams.
Hormonal changes – Female sex hormones estrogen and progesterone leads to excessive production of melanin due to various reasons like taking birth control pills or even during pregnancy or even when the skin is been exposed to the sun.
Taking certain medications – Medications like tetracycline, antibiotics, retinoids, and chemotherapy can also have possible causes for pigmentation.
With aging, the skin becomes thin and translucent and decreases the pigment-containing cells(melanocytes). Hence the strength of the skin reduces, and dermis blood vessels become fragile leading to darkening and bleeding in the skin.
Disease of the gastrointestinal tract – Constipation, Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Lactose intolerance, or like.